Сайт переезжает на новый адрес:
Но очень медленно... Приношу извинения за неудобства...
Миклош Хорти: Мнения
Элиэзер М. Рабинович: Спасение евреев Будапешта
9. Оценка роли Хорти в спасении евреев.

Элиэзер М. Рабинович

6.2. Оккупация и Холокост в Венгрии


1. Introduction

2. Sources

3. Admiral Miklós Horthy de Nagybánya – a Brief Biography until 1919

4. A Brief History of Hungary between Two World Wars

4.1. New Geography. The Tragedy of the Treaty of Trianon

4.2. 1919: The Soviet Republic, Counter-revolution, Red and White Terror

4.3. 1920-1944: The Political Structure of Hungary. A Regent. What is it: “Horthy’s Regime”?

4.4. Hungary and the Jews – Part I

4.4.1. Introduction

4.4.2. The First and Second Jewish Laws

4.4.3. Was Horthy an Anti-Semite? A Dilemma of the Leader of an Anti-Semitic Democracy

5. Hungary Enters WWII

5.1. Governments of Pal Teleki and Laszlo Bardossy. The Third Jewish Law

5.2. Hungarian War Crimes during Bardossy’s Tenure

5.2.1. Kamenets-Podolsk

5.2.2. Novi Sad, Serbia

5.3. Hungary and the Jews – Part II: “A Refuge for One Million Jews”

5.4. Vice-Regent Istvan Horthy, Countess Ilona Bowden, Miklos Horthy, Jr.

6. The Height of the War

6.1. Kállai-Kettös (Government of Horthy, Kallay, and Keresztes-Fischer)

6.1.1. Kallay’s Appointment

6.1.2. Kallay’s Visit to Hitler. A Timeline of Anti-Jewish Pressure

6.1.3. Kallay’s Visit to Mussolini, to The King of Italy, to the Pope

6.1.4. April 17 1943. Horthy at Hitler’s. Hitler Demands the Replacement of Kallay and the Start of the Deportation of the Jews. Horthy Rejects the Demands

6.1.5. Kallay: “I Saw the Jewish Problem as the Problem of Our Nation”

6.2. Occupation and Holocaust in Hungary

6.2.1. March 15-19, 1944. Horthy at Hitler’s. Invasion

6.2.2. March 19, 1944. About 7 in the Evening: “I am Still an Admiral”

6.2.3. March 19, 1944. About 9 in the Evening: «God Bless You, Miklos». March 20th.

6.2.4. End of March to End of June: Deportation of the Jews outside Budapest. A Situation in Budapest

6.2.5. What was Known at the Time about the Fate of the Jews Sent to Poland Allegedly to Work? “The Vrba-Wetzler Report”

6.2.6. July 1944. Horthy Uses the Troops to Halt the Deportations

6.2.7. August 1944

7. The End of the War

7.1. Horthy Attempts Capitulation and Is Overthrown (September to October 16, 1944)

7.2. Government of the Arrow Cross Party. Rescue of the Jews by Diplomats and Ordinary Hungarians (October 17, 1944, to January 17, 1945)

7.3. Liberation

8. Horthy’s Life from His Arrest until His Death (September 16, 1944, to February 9, 1957)

9. An Assessment of Horthy’s Part in the Rescue of the Jews. Could He have Done More?

10. Conclusion: Tour of the Jewish Quarter in Budapest


Bibliography – 76 items


[1] Wikipedia, Carl Lutz.

[2] Wikipedia, Raoul Wallenberg.

[3] Е.М. Рабинович, «Сотрудничали ли сионисты с нацистами?», Заметки по еврейской истории, 2009, #6(109); http://berkovich-


[5] Randolph L. Braham, The Reinterment and Political Rehabilitation of Miklós Horthy, Slavic Almanach, vol. 2, edited by Henrietta Mondry and Paul Schweiger (Johannesburg: University of the Witwatersrand, 1993), pp. 137-140;

[6]The US Embassy on the Horthy statue controversy

[7] Nicholas Horthy, Memoirs, Annotated by Andrew L. Simon, 2000.

[8] Nikolas Kallay, Hungarian Premier, A Personal Account, Columbia Univ. Press, 1954.

[9] Mario D. Fenyo, Hitler, Horthy, and Hungary, p.171, Yale Univ. Press, 1972.

[10] John F. Montgomery, Hungary – The Unwilling Satellite, 1947; Vista Books, Morristown, NJ, 1993.

[11] Eichmann Interrogated, Transcripts from the Archives of the Israeli Police, Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1983.

[12] Trial of Adolph Eichmann,,,

[13] Steven А. Colman, The Explanation; книгу воспоминаний можно загрузить с:

[14] Randolph L. Braham, The Politics of Genocide: The Holocaust in Hungary, Wayne State Univ. Press, Detroit, MI, 2000.

[15] Thomas Sakmyster, Hungary’s Admiral on Horseback – Miklos Horthy, 1918 – 1944; Columbia U. Press, 1994.

[16] Raphael Patai, The Jews of Hungary, Wayne State Univ. Press, Detroit, 1996.

[17] Istvan Deak, Essays on Hitler's Europe, pp. 148-158, U. of Nebraska Press, 2001.

[18] T. Zane Reeves PhD, Shoes Along the Danube, Eloquent Books (November 16, 2011).

[19] Б.Й. Желицки, Регент Венгрии Миклош Хорти (1868-1957), Новая и новейшая история, №№2-3, 1996,

[20] Википедия, Трианонский договор.

[21] Timothy Snyder, Bloodlands – Europe Between Hitler and Stalin, pp. 7-8, Basic Books, NY, 2010.

[22] Istvan Lazar, Hungary – a brief history,

[23] Википедия, Карл I (император Австрии).

[24] Википедия, Венгерская Советская Республика.

[25] Winston S. Churchill, Zionism versus Bolshevism: A Struggle for the Soul of the Jewish People, Illustrated Sunday Herald, February 8, 1920, page 5. Цитируется по:; проверено по: и; подтверждено Сэкмистером, ссылка 15, стр. 396.

[26]Encyclopaedia Judaica, Jews in Hungary 02: 1919-1939,

[27] Paul A. Hanebrink, In Defense of Christian Hungary: Religion, Nationalism, and Antisemitism, 1890-1944; 2009.

[28] Eva S. Balogh, Miklós Horthy: 1919-1921, Hungarian Spectrum, Oct. 13, 2010;

[29] Википедия, Кра́сный терро́р в Крыму́.

[30] Википедия, Ракоши, Матьяш.

[31] Wikipedia, People's Republic of Hungary.

[32] Это пример того, насколько расходятся данные в одной и той же энциклопедии. Большие значения взяты из предыдущей ссылки со ссылкой на источник 2007 г.; более низкие цифры - из статьи об истории Венгрии в той же энциклопедии.

[33] Wikipedia, Miklós Horthy.

[34] Istvan Deak, The Holocaust in Hungary, pp.148-158, Hungarian Quarterly, Winter 2004, Budapest.

[35] Istvan Deak, The Peculiarities of Hungarian Fascism, The Holocaust in Hungary - - Forty Years Later, Ed. By R.L. Braham and Bela Vago, p. 43-51, Columbia Univ. Press, 1985.

[36] Steve Colman, Comment #11 on Jan. 10, 2014, on site:

[37] Eva S. Balogh, Hungarian Spectrum, May 29, 2011;

[38] Wikipedia, History of the Jews in Hungary.

[39] Randolph L. Braham, The Holocaust in Hangary, A Retrospective Analysis, p. 27 in “The Nazis’ last Victims: The Holocaust in Hungury”, Edited by R.L. Braham ans Scott Miller, Wayne Univ. Press, 2002.

[40] Википедия, Венский арбитраж.

[41] Count Bethlen Lashes Hungarian Anti-Jewish Bill at Committee Hearing, Read more:

[42] Евгений Беркович, Мысли о Вагнере,… Блоги журнала «Семь искусств»,

[43] Istvan Deak, Essays on Hitler's Europe, pp. 148-158, U. of Nebraska Press, 2001.

[44] Estimated War Dead – World War II;

[45] Без автора, «The First Massacre: Kamenets-Podolsky»,

[46] Wikipedia, Ferenc Keresztes-Fischer.

[47] Wikipedia, Kamianets-Podilskyi Massacre.

[48] Kinga Frojimovics, Special Characteristics of the Holocaust in Hungary, p.251 in a book “The Routledge History of the Holocaust”, edited by Johnathan C. Friedman, New York, NY 2011.


[50] См. ссылку 7, стр. 330.

[51] Wikipedia, Istvȧn Horthy.

[52]Wikipedia, Vilmos Nagy de Nagybaczon.

[53] LÉVAI, JENÖ, Black Book on the Martyrdom of Hungarian Jewry (1948).

[54]Laszlo Karsai, Могли ли евреи Венгрии пережить Холокост?,

[55] Raul Hilberg, The destruction of the European Jews, Student edition, Holmes & Meier, NY-London, 1985.

[56] Взято из Интернета:

[57] Wikipedia, Vrba–Wetzler report.

[58] The Jewish Council,

[59] The Forgotten Rescue: The Royal Hungarian Army and the Rescue of the Budapest Jews, From material contributed by Frank Koszorus, Esq. and Chris Szabo, pp. 344-348 in ref. 7.

[60] Tom Lantos, The American Hungarian Federation,

[61] David Metzler, Raoul Wallenberg, Jewish Virtual Library,

[62] Anne O'HARE McCORMICK, Abroad: Victims of the Last Fury of the Nazis, NY Times, July 15, 1944, p.12.

[63] Jane PERLEZ, Hungary and the Jews: Looking at 1944 Is Difficult, NY Times, April 18, 1994.

[64] Horthy Offer, Shoah Resourse Center,

[65] Theo Tschuy, Dangerous Diplomacy, The Story of Carl Lutz, Rescuer of 62,000 Hungarian Jews, W.B. Eardmans Publ. Co., Grand Rapids, MI, 2000.

[66] 2 min. videointerview in English of Wallenberg’s co-worker Agnes Adachi on YouTube,

[67] Peter Kenez, Личные письма цитируются с разрешения автора.

[68] Wikipedia, Budapest.

[69] Wikipedia, Siege of Budapest.

[70] Ungvary, Krisztian; Ladislaus Lob, and John Lukacs, The siege of Budapest: One Hundred Days in World War II, р. 512, Yale University Press, (April 11, 2005).

[71] Christina S.N. Lewis, Portugal, Hungarian Style, The Wall Street Journal, Dec. 28, 2007,

[72] I. Deak, Could the Hungarian Jews Have Been Survived?”, New York review of Books, 8 Febr. 1982.

[73] Eva S. Balogh, Hungarian Spectrum,; памятник описан в

[74] The Remarkable Reach of Budapest's Dohany Street Synagogue,

[75] Wikipedia, Budapest University of Jewish Studies.

9. Оценка роли Хорти в спасении евреев.
Copyright Szia 1996-2019